Oil, Gas, Hazardous Materials and Multi-Emergencies
Pipelines, Facilities (onshore and offshore), Marine and Rail Transport and Communities
Private Companies, Government and International Organizations (World Bank, United Nations, etc,)
These selected summaries show the range of major assessments undertaken. See also:
Environmental and Social Impact Assessments,
Environmental Reviews, Audit, Due Diligence and Risk Analyses,
Spill Assessment and Management (using Incident Command System - ICS),
Emergency Response Contingency Planning,
Environmental Sensitivity Analysis and Mapping,
Erosion and Coastal Zone Management, and
Training in Spill Science, Management and Environment.
Response Planning Support, Camisea NG/NGL Pipelines, Peru
InterAmerican Development Bank (IADB), 2006-2007
With support of IADB (World Bank Group), E-Tech performed the following tasks associated with development of the Response Plans for the NG and Gas Liquids pipelines crossing the Andes to the coast of Peru:
Detailed review with recommendations of the Camisea Pipeline Spill Contingency Plan (Tier 1, 2 and 3), 560 km across the Andes Mountains.
Analysis and recommendations of spill model output delineating concentrations in the water column and ability to recover.
Equipment analysis, strategy, site locations and recommendations.
Review of equipment applied to national conditions.
Provided details of required Training Courses.
Review of Tier 1 and 2 response equipment depots, and procedures for Tier 3 callout.
Development and participation as reviewer of an international oil spill response exercise to receive Bank approval of their Plan.
Review analysis of fire, flashover and explosion.
Recommendations for environmental and social components (sensitivity analysis) to be included, and format.
Audit of equipment bases and transport (helicopter and ground) systems and procedures.
Audit of training programs and verification.
Verification of maintenance and tracking programs.
Recommendations were accepted and incorporated into the final Plan which received Bank approval
The majority of the work including report review and field site visits was conducted in Spanish.
Response Plans, BTC Pipeline, Turkey
2003-2007, Botas, Ankara
Complete and detailed plans for the 1074 km (42 inch) BTC Pipeline and Marine Terminal in Turkey were prepared. Plans and response drills were approved by the Turkish Government, British Petroleum and World Bank (European) representatives. Plans include:
Oil Spill Response (Pipeline and Marine Terminal)
Wildlife Protection and Response,
Sensitivity Maps and Explanatory Atlases for the Pipeline and Marine Terminal,
Coastal Erosion Analysis,
Spill Response Procedures,
Response Capability Assessment associated with Terminal Expansion, and
Development of a computer database having over 320 Containment Sites including information on river flow, probable oil spill trajectory movement, environmental and equipment information.
Based on these needs, we developed the procurement specifications and oversaw the purchase of over $7 million of oil spill equipment as well as selection of a spill response contractor responsible for over 75 persons located at four response depots strategically placed along the pipeline.
Turkmenbashi Port Spill Contingency Plan, Turkmenistan
World Bank (Julian Assoc.) 2010
For this World Bank study, we provided review and details concerning:
Relevant legislation and conventions
Resources at risk
Spill risk analysis
Evaluation of response needs
Response management system
Documentation of response and expenditures
Waste handling and storage
Outside support and volunteers
Wildlife protection and handling
Training and exercises
Equipment and personnel resources
Compensation and claims
Equipment review and recommendations
Evaluation of Vessel and Valdez Terminal Response Plans, Alaska
1999, 2002, 2007, PWS RCAC
Response plans submitted by vessel operators using the Valdez Terminal were reviewed using criteria were developed by the State of Alaska. Components specifically reviewed include: equipment deployment strategies (including transport to Valdez), response strategies, non-mechanical response options, vessel inspection and maintenance, analysis of potential discharges, and source control and detection procedures. The vessel plans include those presented by Chevron, Tesoro, Marine Transport Lines, Keystone Shipping, Sea River, ARCO, and Maritime Overseas.
Emergency Response Plans, Gas Pipelines, Chile and Bolivia
E-Tech provided the emergency response plans for:
Chile: The transport and distribution system of the 800 km TransGas de Chile Pipeline (British Gas, Tenneco and ENAP) entering Chile from the Neuquen oil and gas fields in Argentina.
Bolivia: The Group Andino (Repsol-YPF, PetroBras, and TotalFinaElf) 30 inch x 420 km pipeline from Santa Cruz, Bolivia to the Brazilian border.
Plan components included: structural organization, notification procedures, procedures during construction and operations, and operation.
Analysis of European and U.S. National Oil Spill Contingency Plans
We evaluated the U.S. and European National Contingency Plans with reference to:
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness Response and Cooperation (OPRC).
Pre-positioned oil spill combating equipment.
A program of exercises for oil pollution response organizations and training of relevant personnel.
Detailed plans and communication capabilities.
Arrangement for spill coordination and capability to mobilize the appropriate resources.
IMO Manual on Oil Pollution, Section II Contingency Planning.
NCPs for France, UK, Portugal and the U.S.
Regional Agreement within the EU and with neighboring countries.
Components of review included:
Vessel assessment and Salvage procedures.
Operational response decisions (setting Objectives and Policy).
Waste management and disposal.
Equipment and Exercises.
Fate and effects modeling.
Incident overflights and spill tracking.
Ocean-going recovery vessel operations.
Incident management procedures and operations.
Activation of the National Contingency Plan (local, regional and international level as necessary).
Development of a response organization with participation of specified government authorities.
Activation of appropriate response organizations.
Consideration of possible alternatives and risks.
Establishment of priorities.
Monitoring and corrective action as needed.
Response Plans, Panama Canal and Trans-Panama Pipeline
Panama Canal Oil and Hazardous Materials Plan: The Panama Canal forms one of the world's strategic shipping routes handling hundreds of oil and hazardous cargoes annually. Additionally, the surrounding area contains several large oil storage and transport facilities as well. This project reviewed oil, hazardous materials, and other risks in terms of potential Canal closure based on probability of occurrence and potential severity. Mitigation measures were recommended in all cases identified. :
PTP PipelineSpill Response Plan : This project involved the development of an effective oil-spill response plan for PetroTerminal de Panama (PTP) facilities in western Panama. The installation consists of an offloading terminal and oil storage depot along the Pacific Coast, a 132-km pipeline over the Cordillera Central of Panama, and an Atlantic Ocean terminal consisting of a tank farm and two SPM monobuoys. The work included analysis and recommendations to purchase specific equipment, to develop a spill-response organizational structure, and to test both equipment and spill-response personnel in an organized spill-drill situation.
Equipment Analysis for Oil Spill Response, Prince William Sound, Alaska
This study evaluated the quantity and type of “out-of-region” equipment that could be realistically transferred to Prince William Sound during a major oil spill by those organizations identified by vessel operators (Plan Holders) using the Valdez Marine Terminal. Data were collected from on-site visits to various regional spill response organizations.
Results were reviewed to outfit a total of 14 Task Forces with a total of 154,000 ft boom, 84 skimmers and 168 storage units. This survey also included nationally available material from U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Navy Superintendent of Salvage (SupSalv).
Oil and HazMat Response Plan, U.S. Antarctic Facilities
National Science Foundation, 1999-2001
McMurdo Station is the largest of all Antarctic facilities (>1300 people summer, 200 winter), and has fuel storage capacity > 4 million gallons. Fuel is supplied by a single tanker arriving in February each year. Available water-borne spill response equipment is operationally hazardous to use due to broken ice conditions, limited open water, and difficulty of putting equipment into the water. Operating from shore, however, the station has extensive pump, hose and storage capability which can move substantial amounts of oil if needed. During major spills, alternative response techniques, particularly burning, would be favorably considered. Equipment from USCG and Navy SupSalv were evaluated and are expected to be sent as needed.
Gundlach, E., J. Gallagher, J. Hatcher and T. Vinson, 2001. Planning and hazards of spill response in Antarctica. International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Wash. DC.
Gundlach, E.R. 2001. Spill Response Guide Oil and Hazardous Materials, U.S. Antarctic Facilities. 22 p.
Response and Salvage Plans, Shell Marine Transport (Barge Fleet and Terminals)
Shell USA is one of the largest transporters of oil and chemicals in the United States. We reviewed several major port facilities in terms of safety and spill-control operations, and developed a modular response manual indicating specific actions to be taken with respect to spills, fire, terrorism, collision and a host of other emergencies that may be expected from operation of the Shell barge fleet and terminals. In addition, we provided specific salvage measures and training requirements. Plan components included:
Personal Injury / Exposure
Small Fire / Spillage
Cargo Fire / Explosion
Non-Fire Marine Casualty
Cargo Transfer Procedures
Survey and Salvage
Strength and Stability Calculations
Gundlach, E.R. and Bill Millwee, 1993. Emergency Procedures and Salvage Plan – Lube Barges. Approx. 200 pp.
Spill Plan for James River Reserve Fleet (Virginia)
The Maritime Administration cares for more than 115 aged vessels of varying sizes that comprise the James River Reserve Fleet. Potential spill losses derive from ruptures or leaks from fuel oil stored on board. Historically, the largest spill to occur was the 1000-barrel spill from the vessel Donner. The largest potential spill (e.g. Worst Case Discharge) based on rupture of two adjacent tanks of oil is determined to be 282,500 barrels. The Plan included detailed call-outs, roles and responsibilities, and Tactical Response Plans that provided protection priorities and the specific equipment needed.
Deepwater Response Plan, Nigeria
AGIP (ERML), Lagos
AGIP Nigeria’s spill response plan was updated and amplified to include deepwater operations. Working with the AGIP structure the Plan was also updated to include elements of the Incident Command System, particularly roles and responsibilities. Additional sections were added on dispersant usage and in-situ burning.
Review of Emergency Response Procedures, 27 Facilities, Offshore Brazil
PetroBras (ADL), 2000
An on-site examination of 27 offshore installations (FPSO vessels, floating platforms, attached platforms) was conducted to review written procedures, training, and the ability of operators to detect and respond to low-level anomalies in order to prevent the small emergency to degenerate into a major emergency or spill-related catastrophe. The onshore installations and pipeline associated with the Campos Basin were also included in the review. Contingency Plans were reviewed and tested in detail with on-site operating personnel.
Benchmarking International Plan Requirements for Application to Bolivia
Bolivian Government (APT)
To advise the Bolivian Government on industry response plan requirements, we investigated and compared national contingency plans and response plan requirements from Venezuela, Mexico, Canada, Argentina, Brazil as well as several European countries. An implementation of an integrated government-industry Incident Command System was recommended. E-Tech colleagues in Argentina and Brazil assisted the Project.
Port Contingency Planning and Equipment Needs, Tunisia
U.S. TDA, Tunisia Office of Merchant Marine and Ports, 1999-2000)
In addition to having four major ports that receive oil and commercial products, Tunisia is additionally exposed to potential spills from vessels that transit close to shore as they cross the Mediterranean. This study evaluated Tunisia’s National and Local oil spill contingency plans and the equipment available at each commercial port (Bizerte, Tunis–Goulette–Rades, Sfax, and Zarzis) for purposes of increasing the spill-response capability of Tunisia. The equipment review entailed analysis of existing equipment, time to respond, potential spill size and location, and environmentally sensitive areas needing protection.
Hazelton, R.H., E. Gundlach, and others. 2001. Prevention and abatement of marine pollution in Tunisian commercial ports. 2001 International Oil Spill Conference.
Hazelton, R. and E.R. Gundlach, 1999. Control, prevention et lutte contre la pollution marine dans les ports de commerce Tunisiens (Control and prevention of marine pollution in the commercial ports of Tunisia. Office de la Marine Marchande et des Ports, Tunis.110 pp.
National Contingency Plan Review, Equipment Evaluation, and Benchmarking, Venezuela
PDVSA, Caracas, 1997-1998
As part of the national effort to improve oil spill response performance in Venezuela, the National Contingency Plan was reviewed in depth to reflect the increased awareness of oil pollution costs. Venezuela presently exports 3 million barrels per day, which is expected to rise at least 20 percent over the next 8 years. The work involved site visits to all major export facilities to determine the actual capabilities of their Local and Regional Contingency Plans and review of spill equipment on site as well as that scheduled for purchase.
Specific recommendations were made for the out-sourcing of equipment purchases, maintenance, training, and all response activities during spill-related events. Escorted tours were also arranged for visiting major spill response organizations in the United States.
Contingency Planning Based on Environmental, Alaska
This project provided an in-depth analysis of the risk potential from non-crude tankers and barges operations in all of Alaska. Using the GIS to review various route and environmental sensitivities, response capabilities were prioritized for the various ADEC regions. Specific equipment recommendations were made to augment existing capabilities and, where absent, to provide a meaningful stockpile of equipment to respond to regionally based incidents. Also reviewed were the methods available for responding to oil spills as well as liability limits related to the size of cargo loss and potential spill location.
Additional tasks included a full analysis of tanker and barge characteristics, ownership, spill and response characteristics, accident rates, detailed spill response capabilities and location in the Pacific Northwest, and an evaluation of on-board response capabilities for non-crude vessels in Alaska. This information was used by Alaska to assist development of spill-response requirements.
Gundlach, E.R. and G.M. Harben. 1993. Non-crude oil transport and Environmental Risk, State of Alaska. International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute.
Gundlach, E.R. 1991. Non-crude vessel study; environmental risk, vessel owner database, spill occurrence database, response depot location and equipment evaluation, and vessel response requirements (5 reports). Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. approx. 350 pp.
National Oil Spill Contingency Plan, Mauritius
IMO (London) / UNEP (Nairobi)
This project was developed in support of the Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region and its protocol on emergency cooperation. The project included extensive participation of Mauritian scientists and resource managers and close ties with the Ministry of Housing, Lands and the Environment to ensure the incorporation of all relevant environmental and socio-economic resource data.
Detailed response procedures were worked out between agencies by our personnel serving as a catalyst. The Contingency Plan and supporting sensitivity maps were produced in French and English.
Murday, M. and E.R. Gundlach. 1989. Oil spill contingency planning in Mauritius. 1989 Oil Spill Conf., American Petroleum Institute, p. 539-545.
Murday, M. and E.R. Gundlach. 1987. A national oil spill contingency plan for Mauritius. Prepared for United Nations, International Maritime Organization, U.N. Development Program, and Mauritius Ministry of Housing, Lands and the Environment, 146 pp.
Design of Emergency Spill Response Management System, U. S. Coast Guard
U.S. Coast Guard R&D
Effective oil spill and port management under emergency situations can be greatly enhanced by computer-based systems. This project developed a set of initial requirements for such a system based on previous experience with the State of Alaska at the Exxon Valdez spill and then tested these requirements against the Magnavox OSARMS system during a PREP drill in New Orleans, Louisiana.
From this evaluation, we developed a set of functional requirements for the U.S. Coast Guard. The system is designed to enhance Command Post operations during major, multi-agency response efforts. The final report highlights the experience gained through review of the OSARMS system and previous experience to develop a series of functional requirements for such a Multi-Agency Response, Tactical Action Display (MAR_TAD).
Report: Gundlach, E.R. and M. Kendziorek, 1996. Evaluation of MAR-TAD system requirement; using the OSARMS system to validate and identify refinements to MAR-TAD requirements. Report to Volpe Transportation Center and USCG R&D Center, 100 pp.
Orange County Oil Spill Response Plan, California
Working closely with county and city representatives, this project completed an oil spill contingency plan and environmental sensitivity analysis for the County of Orange and the coastal communities of Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, and San Clemente. This plan was developed in response to the Lambert-Keene-Seastrand Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 1990 and includes all spill plan elements including authorities, organization, area assessments, sensitive areas, disposal methods, and a complete summary of the areas ecological, geological, and socioeconomic resources. Ecological resources included the site locations for all sensitive areas, marine mammal haulouts, shorebird habitats, seagrass and kelp beds. A detailed sensitivity map was made incorporating all these features plus analysis of shoreline types, classified as to sensitivity to oil spills.
OIl Field Response Plans, Argentina
Contingency plans were developed for several oil fields in the Neuquen Basin (Catriel, Dadin, Rincon de los Sauces) and in the Mendoza area (Vizacacheras). Each plan fully defined the organizational structure, spill management roles and responsibilities, equipment needs and deployment strategies, notification procedures, and specific actions to be taken. Plans were submitted in Spanish and approved by the Argentine regulatory authority.
Sponsors included YPF, Astra, and others.
Spill Response Plan Evaluation, Manaus, Brazil
We provided a training session for participants and prepared the scenario to test the regional contingency plan for Amazonas. As part of the exercise the facility manager for Petrobras in Manaus was unexpectedly notified of a spill incident at his on-river facility. A full range of skimmer and boom equipment was then deployed from both small and large vessels. Equipment was rapidly deployed in the water and ready to collect oil (oranges) within 1 hour. Shoreline cleanup was underway within two hours. A report of activities and improvements was prepared. In all, the response was very successful and indicated a high degree of preparedness by Petrobras and its response contractor.
Spill Trajectories for Response Plans, California
As part of oil spill response plans submitted to the State of California, we prepared spill trajectories and impact zones for San Francisco, Stockton, Santa Barbara area, Los Angeles and San Diego, using diesel and no. 6 oils to provide compliance to new California oil spill planning regulations. Detailed maps were generated to show worst-case impacts after 24, 48 and 72 hours under varying wind and tidal conditions. Worst-case spills (600,000 barrels) were used in addition to smaller spills. Linking this information with available equipment for impacted areas ensures adequate response resources for each geographic area.
Review of Alaska's Citizen's Advisory Council as Model to Establish Harbor Safety Committees
US Coast Headquarters
This Project reviewed the two primary Regional Citizens’ Advisory Councils in the United States in Alaska (Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound, both established by OPA’90 legislation), as well as other groups in Maine, California, and Washington State, as a possible model for establishing Harbor Safety Committees in other ports.
Aspects under review included Charter, Membership, Funding, relationship to shippers and other port members, and method to implement in other ports. Information was obtained through site visit to Alaska and by phone communications.
Development of US Coast Guard Sorbents Database
US Coast R&D Center
An interactive database of oil spill sorbent products was developed using HyperCard to ensure compatibility with existing U.S. Coast Guard and NOAA programs. By defining the characteristics of the oil spilled, and the environment to be protected, the database will provide the most appropriate sorbents to be used, their manufacturer / distributor, and an estimated cost. The database was developed for installation into the MSO’s existing Cameo-based system.
National Review of Harbor Safety Committees and Recommendations
US Coast Headquarters
This study developed guidance for Coast Guard Captains of the Port to enhance local safety coordination. This will be done by increasing the effectiveness of existing local port safety groups, or through the establishment of new Harbor Safety Committees where none exist, and by encouraging the active participation of the Coast Guard in local port safety coordinating bodies. The study collected data from 24 ports to develop a set of recommendations, many of which were issued as guidance to Coast Guard offices throughout the U.S. We especially reviewed strategies for gaining successful cooperation among the various groups with an interest in the local port or waterways. Recommendations in the report were incorporated into a published notification to mariners (NVIC).
Spill Response Plans, South Carolina
The two cities of Myrtle Beach and North Myrtle extend for a distance of nine miles along the coast of northern South Carolina. During the last spring and summer months, hundreds of thousands of tourists visit the beach areas for recreation. An oil spill at this time could be economically devastating to this coastal resort. The purpose of this project was to prepare a detailed plan to be activated in case of an oil-spill emergency. Land-based resources, such as golf courses, playgrounds, shopping areas and state parts, were carefully assessed to provide possible tourist activity should the beaches become unusable. Cleanup organizational structure, equipment availability and recommended response measures were also determined to provide the necessary information to the cities to effectively combat the detrimental effects of an oil spill. The submitted plan was included in their Manual for Emergency Response.
Evaluation of Spill Response Plans, Great Lakes, U.S.
U.S. Corps of Engineers
The Great Lakes is an area of intense marine transport and possible oil spills. This project objectively reviewed more tan 70 government and private oil and hazardous contingency plans in terms of a series of characteristics including organizational structure, designation of critical areas, equipment on hand, and other factors.
Kaiser, T., W. Godon, R. Whitehorne, E.R. Gundlach, and B.J. Baca, 1987. Canadian-U.S. spill response cooperation along the Great Lakes. International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Wash. DC, p. 177-180.
Gundlach, E.R., M. Murday, and W.L. Fanning, 1986. Review and evaluation of contingency plans for oil and hazardous substances in the upper Great Lakes region. Submitted to U.S. Army Engineer District, Corps of Engineers, Detroit, MI, 268 pp.